本次暑期学校邀请了德国Frankfurt大学的Dirk Rischke教授作题为“Symmetries in Quantum Mechanics and Particle Physics”的系列讲座，美国Indiana大学的Jinfeng Liao教授作题为“Anomalous Transport in Chiral Matter”的系列讲座，美国加州大学洛杉矶分校的Huan Zhong Huang教授作题为“Introduction to high-energy experiments”的系列讲座。本系列讲座将引领学生了解当前粒子物理与核物理理论与实验方面的基础知识与最新发展。课程主要内容见附件2。
主讲：Dirk Rischke (Frankfurt University)
1. Symmetries in Quantum Mechanics：Space and time translations, spatial rotation, and their physics consequences in quantum mechanics.
2. Introduction to Group Theory：The mathematical theory of symmetry — the group theory. Group theory and representation of a group, especially the Lie group and its representation, the Casimir operator, multiplets, and Schur’s lemma.
3. Group theory of angular momentum：Understanding the angular momentum form the theory of group. Construction of the eigenstates of angular momentum, Clebsch-Gordon coefficients.
4. The group SU(3)：The generators of SU(3), its structure constants, its sub-algebra and sub-group, and its representation.
5. Unitary symmetries of the strong interaction：The U(1) symmetry of quantum electrodynamics，SU(3) color symmetry of quantum chromodynamics，SU(N_f) flavor symmetry，Isospin symmetry，Strangeness and SU(3) flavor symmetry，Charm and SU(4) flavor symmetry.
主讲：Jinfeng Liao (Indiana University)
1. Matter and Transport：Matter and transport on one hand are macroscopic conceptions of the physical world around us, while on the other hand are arising from large aggregate of basic entities (e.g. electrons or other fundamental particles) and thus ultimately traced to the (many-body) dynamics of their microscopic constituents. We will illustrate this picture with simple models.
2. Chirality and Anomaly：In this lecture we explore further the microscopic construction of the physical world, emphasizing the most basic building blocks known as the fundamental particles. We will briefly discuss how the so-called Standard Model of Particle Physics ambitiously explains (almost) all observed physical phenomena. With that we further focus on the particular category of particles known as spin-1/2 fermions as described by the famous Dirac equation. We discuss various types of fermions and highlight the concept of chirality. Finally we elaborate on the salient feature, the chiral anomaly, of massless fermions that emerges in their quantum mechanical description.
3. Anomalous Chiral Transport：Having discussed the microscopic anomaly of chiral fermions, in this lecture we go back to the macroscopic environment and examine the transport properties of matter consisting of those chiral fermions that bear anomaly. As we will find out, highly nontrivial transport processes that are impossible in normal matter, would occur in the chiral matter we discuss. These processes are often referred to as anomalous chiral transport. We highlight a number of such examples, in particular the so-called Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME), and elaborate on the underlying intuitive pictures.
4. Anomalous Kinetic Theory：Starting from this lecture, we aim to develop a many-body theoretical understanding of the anomalous chiral transport. For a general physical system of many particles that may stay away from thermal equilibrium, the kinetic theory (as first invented by Boltzmann) provides a very useful framework to describe its evolution. We first demonstrate how normal transport processes are described in this framework i.e. usual kinetic theory. With that preparation, we then proceed to recognize the necessary change for accommodating the quantum nature of chiral fermions. With proper modifications of usual kinetic theory into an anomalous kinetic theory, we develop a description and derivation of anomalous chiral transport phenomena within this new framework.
5. Anomalous Fluid Dynamics：Following the previous lecture, we further develop the many-body theoretical understanding of the anomalous chiral transport in a quite different physical setting, namely when the system under consideration is in a regime describable by fluid dynamics. The fluid dynamics provides a universal description of the collective motion of any system under the long-time large-distance limit. However again the usual fluid dynamical laws need to be modified to account for the special quantum nature for a fluid made of chiral fermions. We lay out the path to derive such new equations of anomalous fluid dynamics and show how the anomalous transport phenomena arise in this framework.
6. Real-World Chiral Materials：In this last lecture, we finally come to the search of such anomalous chiral transport in real-world chiral materials. So far two very distinctive physical systems have been enthusiastically studied. The first is the so-called quark-gluon plasma, also known as the matter with highest man-made temperature (~about trillion degrees), which occupied the whole universe shortly after the cosmic Big Bang and can now be re-created in laboratory by high-energy nuclear collisions. The other are the so-called Dirac and Weyl semimetal systems in which the emergent electronic states perfectly “simulate” the chiral fermion properties. We will give an elementary discussion on both systems and highlight some of the most exciting progress from both fields.
主讲：Huan Zhong Huang (UCLA)
1. Developtment of particle physics experiments: The discovery of elementary particles in experiments. The basic tools in particle physics in history.
2. The experiments for strong interaction: The deep inelastic scattering experiments and quantum chromodynamics. The physics of proton-proton scattering.
3. The high-energy heavy-ion collisions: The physics of heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. The quark-gluon plasma. The experimental probe of the quark-gluon plasma.
4. The new developments. Future collider experiments, neutrino experiments, and so on.